Yearbook-Archive: Vol 15 (2000)

Vol 15 (2000): Musikpsychologie – Die Musikerpersönlichkeit / Music Psychology – The musician personality [*]

Volume 15 was edited by Klaus-Ernst Behne, Günter Kleinen und Helga de la Motte-Haber.


The printed volume was published by Hogrefe in 2000. The rights of use were reacquired by DGM and the contributions were republished here in 2020 as an OpenAccess publication for free, unrestricted use under the CC-BY 4.0 licence.

All contributions are available as searchable PDF files, have a DOI and are searchable in the PubPsych/PSYNDEX database. Contribution titles and abstracts are consistently given in German and English.

Titles and abstracts marked with [*] have been automatically translated from the original language with

Research Reports on Thematic Focus

Neuere Forschungen zur Musikerpersönlichkeit Personality: the source of new insights into the psychology of the musician

Anthony Kemp
This paper, which is the outcome of extensive research into the musician's personality structure attempts to provide a wider understanding of the less cognitive aspects of musicianship and the psychological demands that music makes on its practitioners. lt takes the view that it is not merely what people know and can do that makes them musicians, it is also what they are. By examining the role of introversion, independence, anxiety, and sensitivity in the musician's development, and the ways and levels that these become manifest from puberty onwards, the paper shows how that these, viewed at deeper levels, not only reflect the demands of music training and professional life but also offer insights into musical processes themselves.

Veränderungen des musikalischen Tempos bei Dirigenten Changes in the musical tempo of conductors [*]

Manuel Jennen, Heiner Gembris
Literature about musicians, especially about conductors, often contains the currently unsubstantiated notion that elderly artists choose slower tempos than younger conductors. Such statements for example are found in early discourses on conducting by Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner and in contemporary reviews of records and concerts. Although this specific hypothesis has not been empirically supported, research on aging provides general evidence that physical and cognitive abilities slow down in the course of life due to decreased efficiency of neural transmission and the weakening of the muscles and the blood circulation. Also, research on musical preferences shows that elderly people prefer slower tempos. However, musicians have been able to preserve their skill on playing fast tempos on a high level of performance into old age when an appropriate practice regimen is maintained. Furthermore, studies regarding the "internal clock" of elderly people demonstrate that those who live an active life do not differ from younger people when estimating the passing of short time intervals. This study investigated the tempo choice of elderly conductors. The data consisted of the performance duration of 46 recordings of Mozart's operas "Don Giovanni" and "The Magie Flute". Some conductors were represented by more than one recording. Our two hypotheses make predictions about the possible correlation of performance durations with the age of the conductors and the idea that performance tempos have accelerated since the 1950s. The second hypothesis was derived from recent findings in historical performance practice. The results showed an interesting pattern. In the case of "Don Giovanni", recordings slowed down significantly with the conductor's age, but the recording year had no influence. Conversely, the recordings of "The Magie Flute" accelerated significantly over the years, yet the conductor's age was not significantly correlated with the performance durations. The different performance histories of the two operas may help explain our results. "Don Giovanni" is still perceived as part of the romantic tradition of the 19th century, while the music and libretto of "The Magie Flute" have been criticised and re-evaluated in the past decades. Although even some elderly conductors may have tried newer and faster conceptions, as a group they tend to choose slower tempos. This tendency may be overcome by deliberate efforts if general developments in performance practice discourage slow tempos. Our findings are consistent both with the results of research on musical preferences across the life span and with research on the maintenance of musical skills with intensive practice in old age.

Die Musikerpersönlichkeit aus neurobiologischer Sicht The musical personality from a neurobiological perspective [*]

Marianne Hassler
Musicians differ from non-musicians on a number of neurobiological parameters. These parameters influence the distinctive patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and emotions permitting a person to react appropriately to the variety of situations in every day life as well as to specific performances within the musical realm. Among these parameters are hormones and other chemical messengers which affect information processing in the brain; there are certain brain structures which may influence the effectiveness of information processing; and there are personality characteristics within the range of masculinity and femininity. Here, musicians have proved to be androgynous, and androgyny has a hormonal basis.

Research Reports

Musikalische Wahrnehmungsentwicklung: Wie Kinder Musik hören Development of musical perception: How children listen to music [*]

Gudrun Schwarzer
In general, reviews on the development of music perception collect single studies and put them into order by focusing mainly on children's chronological age. However, current theoretical approaches of general develop­ mental psychology (e. g. , Amsel & Renninger 1997; Anderson & Wilkening 1991) state that this perspective does not shed light on understanding general developmental trends. Therefore, the goal of the presented contribution is to extract developmental trends in music perception that take into account interindividual variability within age groups. Three develop­ mental trends resulted (1) the development from absolute to relational perception, (2) the development from global to local perception, and (3) the development from analytic to holistic perception. These different perceptual strategies do not replace each other during development but in­ stead music perception means to use these strategies flexibly and adequately.

Musikpräferenzen in der Vorpubertät - Wandel von der Elternorientierung zur Peergruppenorientierung Music preferences in pre-puberty - change from parental orientation to peer group orientation [*]

Nicole Troué, Herbert Bruhn
The purpose of two related studies was to find transitions in the change of music preferences in adolescence. Former theories pleaded for a transition at the age of about 11 to 14 years, which causes a change from parent­ oriented to peer-oriented preferences. The first study shows that 87 % of 141 6th grade students (about 12 years old) already reached peer-oriented preferences. The conclusion was, that if there is any change, it must have been happened at an earlier age. So the second study has been conducted with students of the 3rd and 4th grade (9-11 years old). The results show again neither age- nor grade-related change in music preference. A significant relationship however was found between music preference and self­ rated obedience of the students: High obedience was linked to parent­ oriented and low obedience to peer-oriented music preferences. The authors suggest to conduct follow-up studies on the hypothesis, that the development of general obedience might be the main variable - music preference would be a by-product.

Die feinen Unterschiede zwischen verbalen und klingenden Musikpräferenzen Jugendlicher. Eine computerunterstützte Befragung mit dem Fragebogen-Autorensystem-Multi-Media The subtle differences between verbal and sounding music preferences of young people. A computer-assisted survey with the questionnaire authoring system Multi-Media [*]

Renate Müller
Musical taste is measured as valuation of verbally labelled musical genres (verbal preferences) and as valuation of sounding pieces of music (sounding preferences). Compared to other cultural preferences musical taste is a better indicator of social stratification. The hypothesis was that sounding musical excerpts are estimated higher than the corresponding genres. Data was collected by the questionnaire authoring system multimedia FrAuMuMe which presents audiovisual questionnaires on the computer. 234 young people were interviewed. In general preferences for musical genres were higher than preferences for sounding musical excerpts of the same genres. Young people who show more sympathy for sounding music than for verbally expressed genres are compared to the others. Findings are presented which document different usage of genre terms among interviewees. The restriction to the collection of verbal preferences which still is standard in cultural, media and youth research proves to be insufficient for the investigation of musical taste.

Transkranielle Dopplersonographie und musikalische Wahrnehmung Transcranial Doppler sonography and musical perception [*]

Jörn Dannert, Stefan Evers, Günther Rötter
We performed a study with Transcranial Dopplersonography (TCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right­ handed subjects enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were in­ dependent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly langer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.


40 Säulen und ein Raum 40 columns and one room [*]

Helga de la Motte-Haber


The contributions in this section are available as a Collective PDF

Baacke, Dieter (Hrsg.): Handbuch Jugend und Musik

Renate Müller

Kurt Blaukopf: Musik im Wandel der Gesellschaft. Grundzüge der Musiksoziologie. 2., erweiterte Auflage

Hans Neuhoff

Cornelius Bradter: Die Generative Theorie der Tonalen Musik - Grundlagen und Entwicklungsimpulse durch F. Lerdahl und R. Jackendoff

Guerino Mazzola

Robert Burnett: Tue Global Jukebox. Tue International Music Industry

Hans Neuhoff

Michael Charlton und Silvia Schneider (Hrsg.): Rezeptionsforschung. Theorien und Untersuchungen zum Umgang mit Massenmedien

Christoph Metzger

Hajo Düchting: Paul Klee. Malerei und Musik

Claudia Bullerjahn

Matthias Feldmann: Erwartungsdiskrepanz und emotionales Erleben von Musik

Oliver Schwab-Felisch

Martin Plesch: Hypothesen zur musikalischen Kreativität unter Berücksichtigung psychodynamischer Aspekte der Pathographie bei Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

Melanie Uerlings

Doris Geller: Praktische Intonationslehre für Instrumentalisten und Sänger

Reinhard Kopiez

Heiner Gembris: Grundlagen musikalischer Begabung und Entwicklung

Gunter Kreutz

Heiner Gembris: Grundlagen musikalischer Begabung und Entwicklung

Stefanie Stadler Elmer

Wilfried Gruhn: Der Musikverstand. Neurobiologische Grundlagen des musikalischen Denkens, Hörens und Lernens

Hellmuth Petsche

Marianne Hassler: Musikalische Begabung in der Pubertät. Biologische und psychologische Einflüsse

Petra Schimikowski

Richard Klopffleisch: Lieder der Hitlerjugend. Eine psychologische Studie an ausgewählten Beispielen

Albrecht Dümling

Reinhard Kopiez und Wolfgang Auhagen (Hrsg.): Controlling creative processes in music

Gunter Kreutz

Andreas Kunz: Aspekte der Entwicklung des persönlichen Musikgeschmacks

Klaus-Ernst Behne

Richard Leppert: The Sight of Sound. Music, Representation, and the History of the Body

Nicola Heine

Erich Neuwirth: Musikalische Stimmungen

Reinhard Kopiez

Karin Nohr: Der Musiker und sein Instrument. Studien zu einer besonderen Form der Bezogenheit

Gabriele Hofmann

Christoph Reuter: Die auditive Diskrimination von Orchesterinstrumenten. Verschmelzung und Heraushörbarkeit von Instrumentalklangfarben

Elena Ungeheuer

Roland Ritter & Michael Haberz (Hrsg.): Architecture Music

Claudia Bullerjahn

Ute Ritterfeld: Psychologie der Wohnästhetik: Wie es uns gefällt

Silke Borgstedt

Gabriele Schellberg: Zur Entwicklung der Klangfarbenwahrnehmung von Vorschulkindern

Andrea Mühlmann

Albrecht Schneider: Tonhöhe - Skala - Klang. Akustische, tonometrische und psychoakustische Studien auf vergleichender Grundlage

Horst-Peter Hesse

Ernst Terhardt: Akustische Kommunikation. Grundlagen mit Hörbeispielen

Martha Brech

The contributions in this section are available as a Collective PDF

Die Musikerpersönlichkeit. Internationale Jahrestagung 1998 der ,,Deutschen Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie" (DGM) in Dortmund

Ernst Dombrowski

Aus dem Forschungs-Projekt BACKDOOR: Tagebuchstudie unter Schülerbands

Jan Hemming & Günter Kleinen

5th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition in Seoul/Südkorea, 26.-30. August 1998

Alexandra Hettergott