Yearbook-Archive: Vol 12 (1995)

Vol 12 (1995): Musikpsychologie – Empirische Forschungen - Ästhetische Experimente / Music psychology – Empirical Research - Aesthetic Experiments [*]

Volume 12 was edited by Klaus-Ernst Behne, Günter Kleinen und Helga de la Motte-Haber.


The printed volume was published by Florian Nötzel in 1995. The rights of use were reacquired by DGM and the contributions were republished here in 2020 as an OpenAccess publication for free, unrestricted use under the CC-BY 4.0 licence.

All contributions are available as searchable PDF files, have a DOI and are searchable in the PubPsych/PSYNDEX database. Contribution titles and abstracts are consistently given in German and English.

Titles and abstracts marked with [*] have been automatically translated from the original language with

Research Reports

Entwurf einer neuen Methode der Performanceanalyse auf Grundlage einer Theorie oszillierender Systeme (TOS) Design of a new method of performance analysis based on a theory of oscillating systems (TOS) [*]

Jörg Langner, Reinhard Kopiez
This paper presents a new method of performance analysis based on a "Theory of Oscillating Systems" (TOS). The theory assumes that the dynamic course of a performance triggers a number of oscillations - situated between 0.002 and 24 Hz - (perceived by non-adaptive oscillators) in human perception. The oscillations' specific activation depends on the input source and can be evaluated by a modified Fourier analysis. These states of activation are shown in a diagram - the so called Tempogram - which enables us to draw significant conclusions about the peculiarities and quality of a performance. A demonstration of the method is given, using two recordings of Erik Satie's Gymnopedie No. 1 played by a professional and a non-professional pianist. Tempograms of both interpretations show, on the one hand, fine deviations in tempo design and, on the other, that the professional pianist's playing is characterized by more intensive activation of the oscillations situated in the low-frequency area. This result confirms a hypothesis of the "Theory of Oscillating Systems" - namely that lowfrequency oscillations provide a criterion for measuring the quality of an interpretation. The analyses always show the simultaneous stimulation of various layers of oscillators; this confirms our assumption that musical tempo has to be seen basically as a multidimensional phenomenon. Perspectives for future research and connections to other methods of performance research and musical phrasing are discussed.

Making Meter Evident - On the Playing of an Ambiguous Bach Melody Das Metrum zum Vorschein bringen - Über das Spiel einer mehrdeutigen Bach-Melodie [*]

Bengt Edlund
After making distinctions between phenomenal, inherent, and notated meter, and defining the concept of metric ambiguity, a Bach melody allowing of five different metric readings is analyzed. These metric variants were played on the piano, the harpsichord, and the organ by professional musicians, and the performances were then studied with respect to physical cues for meter and judged with respect to the emerging meter by a group of listeners. The outcome of this experiment as well as of a broader investigation comprising 48 Bach melodies is presented.

Was passiert beim Crescendo? - Ein Beitrag zur musikpsychologischen Interpretationsforschung What happens at the crescendo? - A contribution to music-psychological interpretation research [*]

Burkhard Wetekam
Starting from the question in which way pianists execute the instruction of"crescendo" the present investigation used short passages from Sonatinas by Muzio Clementi played by two experienced pianists on a Yamaha "Disc Klavier". The assumption that not only dynamics but also the parameter timing is influenced by performing crescendo is confirmed in so far as an acceleration can be observed in all examples. Comparing two identical passages - one played with the instruction of crescendo, the other without - a reduced lengthening of notes within the crescendo-passage and therefore a less destinctive structuring becomes apparent. In another section the intensity did not increase steadily but step by step. This obviously served the purpose of clarifying the metrical structure. Even a look into very short passages gives us grounds for the assumption that pianists choose between several strategies of performing one instruction like crescendo, depending on the particular context. The analysis of these strategies shows a close connection between the parameters timing and intensity. This observation leads the author to regard an isolated examination of only one of them as questionable.

Survey of Recent Research on the Perception of Harmony and Tonality Überblick über die jüngste Forschung zur Wahrnehmung von Harmonie und Tonalität [*]

Richard Parncutt
Recent research on the perception of harmony and tonality has tended either to consolidate and expand on established approaches such as those of Krumhansl, Lerdahl, and Terhardt, or to add smaller but nevertheless interesting and important details to an increasingly complex picture. Issues of interest have included the perception of consonance and of counterpoint (Huron); harmonic roots (Platt, Pritschet, Thomson); relationships between successive chords (Tekman, Parncutt) and keys (Thompson); the tonality of melodies (Auhagen, Brown, Butler, Cohen, Krumhansl, Vos); the finality of cadences (Rosner) and its dependence on the history of tonal-harmonic syntax (Eberlein); neural-net models of pitch and harmony (Bharucha, Eberlein, Griffith, Laden, Leman); melodic expectation following harmonic cadences (Larson, Povel); the psychological reality of Lerdahl's cognitive structures in music perception (Bigand, Dibben, London); and Krumhansl's key profiles in jazz improvisation (Järvinen), in the minds of children (Lamont), and in the absence of serial order information (West). The creative application of psychological methods and approaches to music theory, and vice-versa, continues to invite careful discussion, and to arouse controversy (Agmon, Cook, Cross).

Formale Struktur und musikalische Expressivität Formal structure and musical expressiveness [*]

Barbara Tillmann, Emmanuel Bigand
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of systematic modifications in global musical structures on perceived expressiveness. Piano pieces by Bach, Mozart, and Schönberg were segmented in short chunks of six seconds on average. These chunks were linked either in a forward order (original version) or in a backward order (inverted version). In the inverted version, the formal global structure of the pieces was destroyed, but neither the musician subjects were required to rate the musical expressiveness of these pieces on 29 semantic scales. One half listened to the three original versions, the other half to the three inverted versions. For both groups, there was a strong effect of the different musical pieces on expressiveness. On the other hand, the effect of the version was slight and mainly due to the Schönberg piece. As for the Bach and the Mozart pieces, playing the chunks in a forward or backward order affected neither the expressiveness, nor the feeling of coherence. These findings suggest that short chunks displayed enough information to define expressiveness for non musician listeners. These results agree with previous ones reported by Gotlieb & Konecni (1985), Cook (1987), Karno & Konecni (1992), and raised the question of psychological reality of global musical structures.

Zu Bezügen zwischen den Benennungen von Affekten in der Barockmusik und Begriffen der heutigen Emotionspsychologie On the relationship between the naming of affects in baroque music and concepts of contemporary emotional psychology [*]

Eberhard Kötter
Expression in music in Handel's opera arias is described by the "Affektenlehre" of the baroque period. The question is if today's subjects judge these arias in the same way as described. A questionnaire was composed of contemporary psychology of emotion. A traditional classification was found by factor analysis and duster analysis. The structure of the factors is comparible with those known in social psychology (Hofstätter). The structure of clusters found for the classification of terms is nearly the same as the structure of emotional terms without any relation to music (Schmidt-Atzert). Exceptions can be explained by changes of tradition of perception.

Musiker hören Musik: Großhirnaktivierungsmuster bei der Verarbeitung rhythmischer und melodischer Strukturen Musicians listen to music: cerebral activation patterns in processing rhythmic and melodic structures [*]

Eckart Altenmüller, Roland Beisteiner
In order to determine brain structures involved in processing of rhythm and melody, cortical DC-potentials were recorded from the scalp of 19 professional musicians during perception and imagination of rhythms and during analytical, creative and mnestic melodic tasks. For the rhythm tasks, subjects listened to simple or complex rhythms or to temporally unstructured sustained tones. Subsequently, either imagination of the rhythm perceived previously or no specific cognitive task was assigned. For the melodic tasks, subjects listened to a sequence of four notes and subsequently were either to reverse the sequence or to compose a new continuation. In the third melodic task, the initial segment of a well-known melody was presented and had to be continued. During acoustic stimulation, a bilateral increase in brain activity predominantly over frontal and parietal brain regions occured in all tasks, irrespectively from the acoustical material presented. Imagination of rhythms yielded a significant activation over posterior temporal regions ofboth hemispheres. Mental reversal of a melody caused the most pronounced activation, especially over parietal areas, probably due to visualization as a cognitive strategy. The creative task caused the lowest brain activation and elicited an unexpected lateralization to the left, though we expected creativity to be a right hemispheric holistic-synthetic process. The only task which yielded a right-hemispheric lateralization was the mnestic task, supporting the view of right temporal structures involved in lang term storage of music.

Über strukturelle Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen sprachlichen und musikalischen Melodien About structural similarities between linguistic and musical melodies [*]

Ernst Dombrowski
In speech prosody the contrast between rising and falling contours is an important device for the formation of structure. Such contours unfold their functions in a succession of accents and intonational units. The present contribution shows that both statements can be applied analogically to the context of music and that the melodic organization of language is relevant to a psychological comprehension of music. A starting point for this analogy is that the characteristic use of rising and falling contours is a language universal, originating in elementary expressive behaviour, i.e. in vocal-communicative gestures, which have now been included in linguistic and - as proposed here - in musical processes, as well (cf. OHALA 1983, 1984, BOLINGER 1986). The melodic continua of language and music are, therefore, viewed as chaines of tone gestures, or rather as (1) gesturally marked, and (2) temporally structured courses (Two-level view). In this connection, central importance is attributed to the dialectics of progredient-open-rising vs. terminal-closed-falling patterns. The line of thought, developed here, is illustrated with linguistic and musical examples. lt is further related to several theoretical approaches to the psychology of music (e. g. by CLYNES, CLARKE, LERDAHL & JACKENDOFF, SCHERER).

Die Institution - Albert Welleks Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Synästhesie About structural similarities between linguistic and musical melodies [*]

Jörg Jewanski
Albert Wellek (1904-1972) started his scientific career with studies about synesthesia. His unpublished doctoral thesis from 1928 served as a quarry, from which he formed numerous articles during the following decades. Many of this articles offer similar ideas, some of them are verbal, but they appeared in periodicals of different scientific branches. Wellek's theory about synesthesia was a synthesis of the whole spirit, his definition was apprehended very wide. Due to the amount of publications concerning synesthesia, his omnipresence in science prevented different interpretations. Traces of his enormous influence can be found also in Russia and the U. S. A. Only since the eighties new results from the history of art (especially the history of colour systems) and neurophysiology as well as new interpretation of the sources and the discoveries of new documents - independent of Wellek's theories - reduce the signification of synesthesia and lead to new definitions and demarcations. A complete list of his writings concerning synesthesia is added.

Das Menschenbild im Liedgut der Hitlerjugend auf dem Hintergrund der Persönlichkeitstheorie der "Deutschen Charakterkunde" The human image in the songs of the Hitler Youth on the background of the personality theory of the "German Character Studies" [*]

Richard Kopffleisch
The essay analyses personality traits, and the view of humanity (Menschenbild) upon which they are based, in the songs of the Hitler Youth Organization (Hitlerjugend: HJ). The analysis is grounded in the personality theory of the "German Character Science" (Deutsche Charakterkunde) of the 30's. The results demonstrate a clear congruence between the human image. of the "Characteroligists" and that favored in the songs of the HJ. The dominant ideal personality is strong-willed, but at the same time intellectually conforming and uncritical, unconditionally obligated to obedience and the communal ideal (Gemeinschaft). There were fewer songs with absolutely clear ideological content in the material than was expected. Altogether, the HJ songs during the Nazi periode are characterized by reduced standards and conventionalization of all expressive forms.



Ein Hörbild - Tableau I-III von Sabine Schäfer An audio picture - Tableau I-III by Sabine Schäfer [*]

Helga de la Motte-Haber

The contributions in this section are available as a Collective PDF

E. Beyer: Musikalische und sprachliche Entwicklung in der frühen Kindheit

H. Gembris

J. Blum (Hg.): Medizinische Probleme bei Musikern

St. Evers

H. Bruhn, R. Oerter & H. Rösing (Hg.): Musikpsychologie - Ein Handbuch

G. Kleinen

M. Dobberstein: Die Psychologie der musikalischen Komposition

K. K. Urban

K. Drexel: Musikwissenschaft und NS-Ideologie

R. Klopffleisch

R. Eberlein: Die Entstehung der tonalen Klangsyntax

R. Parncutt

Feder, Karmel & Pollock (Eds.): Psychoanalytic Explorations in Music: Second series

I. Vetter

J. Hellbrück: Hören

J. Langner

H. Höge: Schriftliche Arbeiten im Studium


V. Karbusicky: Kosmos - Mensch - Musik

G. Kleinen

G. Kleinen: Die psychologische Wirklichkeit der Musik. Wahrnehmung und Deutung im Alltag

W. Gruhn

C. Langenbach: Musikverhalten und Persönlichkeit 16- bis 18jähriger Schüler

K. Plößner

M. Maier: Jacques Handschins "Toncharakter". Zu den Bedingungen seiner Entstehung

H. de la Motte-Haber

A. Müller: Aktive Musiktherapie: Stimmungen, Therapieerleben und immunologisch relevante Speichelparameter

J. Oehlmann

R. Oerter: Psychologie des Spiels

H. Bruhn

S. Oloff: Die Atmung und ihr Einfluß auf Bewegungsabläufe beim Violoncellospiel

R. Steinberg

P. Ostwald & Leonard S. Zegans: The Pleasures and Perils of Genius: Mostly Mozart

I. Vetter

M. Papous ek: Vom ersten Schrei zum ersten Wort

H. Gembris

J. R. Pierce: The Science of Musical Sound

R. Kopiez

W. Prinz & B. Bridgeman: Wahrnehmung - Enzyklopädie der Psychologie

H. Bruhn

J. G. Roederer: The Physics and Psychophysics of Music. An Introduction

J. Barkowsky

B. Schneidermann: Confident Music Performance

C. Reiffenstuhl

U. Seifert: Systematische Musiktheorie und Kognitionswissenschaft

W. Auhagen

R. Steinberg (Ed.): Music and the Mind Machine. Psychophysiology and Psychopathology of the Sense of Music

G. Kreutz

I. Tarr Krüger: Lampenfieber: Ursachen, Wirkung, Therapie

A. Petersen

A.-L. Vinh: Die Wirkungen von Musik in der Fernsehwerbung

C. Bullerjahn

The contributions in this section are available as a Collective PDF

Jahrestagung der „Society for Music Perception and Cognition“ (SMPC) 1995

G. Kreutz

Symposium on Musical Performance - Stockholm 1995

J. Langner